Blood and Immunity Review

1. Describe the two main components of blood.

2. What are the proper name for white blood cells and red blood cells?

3. State the name and function of each of the three blood proteins.

4. How do platelets function?

5. Why are red blood cells able to exist and function without a nucleus?

6. Why do white blood cells require a nucleus?

7. Name the two main groups of white blood cells.

8. Which organ destroys dead or dying red blood cells?

9. After arriving at a high altitude ski resort from your home at sea level, you notice that during the first week of skiing you are short of breath and lacking energy. Gradually, these symptoms disappear. Explain.

10. What is the Rh factor?

11. Agglutination problems may occur when an Rh-negative woman is pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus. Why is there generally no problem when an Rh-positive woman carries an Rh-negative fetus?

12. Describe the way in which the human blood types can be distinguished from one another.

13. Describe the four blood types.

14. What would happen if a person with type A blood received a transfusion of type B blood?

15. In some cases, people who know they are going to have surgery several months in advance can have several units of blood removed ahead of time and stored until their surgery. Why would a person do this?

16. Explain the differences and similarities between whole blood and plasma, lymph, and interstitial fluid.

17. Describe the process by which blood clots form.

18. Complete the following chart to indicate whether a blood transfusion is possible in each case. In each box, show the antigens present on the donors blood, and the antibodies present in the recipients blood.

Blood type of recipient
type of

20. What is anemia and how does it affect a person afflicted by it?

21. Describe the components of the first line of defence in the immune system.

22. Explain how both B and T lymphocytes arise.

23. What is the difference between an antigen and an antibody?

24. Why are patients with serious burns kept in sterile conditions?

25. How does the body distinguish it's own cells from foreign cells?

26. Why are transplanted organs often rejected by the body?

27. When a B lymphocyte becomes activated, what happens to it?

28. How many different antibodies can a single B lymphocyte produce?

29. What are three ways in which antibodies can defeat antigens?

30. Why are babies especially susceptible to infection?

31. As you get older, the number of colds you get each year tends to decrease. Explain.

32. How has HIV been so successful in infecting people?

33. How does histamine function in fighting an infection?

34. How does a vaccine work to provide immunity?

35. What three general types of vaccines can be used?

36. Why does vaccination not work against all diseases?

37. Once a person is infected with a pathogen, why is it too late to use a vaccine?

38. What is an allergy?

39. What family of drugs is used to alleviate the symptoms of allergies? Why are they effective?

40. A virus causing a digestive-tract illness is carried by air to the lungs. Is it likely to cause illness? Explain.

41. Explain the meaning of the term "autoimmune."

42. How does the body improve the immune response to reinfection by the same pathogen?