The Immune System

Chapter 43

1. Outline the immune system’s three lines of defense.

2. What role is played by the skin and mucous membranes?

3. Although the innate immune system is nonspecific, macrophages can recognize foreign cells. How?

4. Describe the action of the complement system.

5. What causes the common signs of inflammation - redness, swelling, and heat - and how do these changes help protect the body against infection.?

6. What is the job of the natural killer cell?

7. Distinguish between active and passive immunity.

8. What is the difference between an antigen and an epitope?

9. What role do MHC molecules play in activating B and T lymphocytes?

10. Describe the genetic basis for our ability to produce B cells with such a wide range of specificities.

11. Explain how the clonal selection of B cells occurs.

12. Look at Fig. 43.13. How does this graph demonstrate both the specificity and memory of acquired immunity?

13. Explain the response to a T-dependant antigen (remember, this requires macrophages and TH cells).

14. How is a cytotoxic T cell activated and what is the result?

15. Outline the steps by which the presence of an ag can result in the production of antibodies.

16. Describe the mechanisms by which antibodies can help eliminate ag.

17. Describe the allergic response.

18. What are monoclonal antibodies and how can they be used?