The Genetic Basis of Development Review

Chapter 21

1. Explain the difference between cell division and morphogenesis.

2. How do each of totipotency in plants, nuclear transplantation in animals, and cloning provide evidence of genomic equivalence?

3. Imagine you want to produce genetically identical llamas. Describe how cloning can be used to do this.

4. What are some possible explanations for the problems associated with animal cloning?

5. What are stem cells? Why are they of such great interest to medicine? What are the ethical questions surrounding their use?

6. Use myoD to explain one way a cell can differentiate and why the differentiation commits the cell to a particular fate.

7. Example the role played by cytoplasmic determinants and induction in cell differentiation.

8. How can a signal molecule released from an embryonic cell induce changes in a neighbouring cell without actually entering the cell?

9. Describe the role of bicoid as a specific example of a cytoplasmic determinant.

10. What do homeotic genes do in cell differentiation?

11. What is apoptosis and how is it regulated?

12. What evidence exists that suggests the homeotic genes arose early in evolution?

13. Although the homeoboxes found in flies and mice are similar, these organisms look quite different. How is this possible?