Circulation and Gas Exchange

Chapter 42

1. Describe the difference between an open and a closed circulatory system.

2. Outline the basic circulatory schemes of vertebrates and explain why the four chambered heart was a necessary evolutionary development in birds and mammals.

3. Be able to trace the path of blood through the heart and both the systemic and pulmonary circuit.

4. How is the rhythm of the heart maintained?

5. Why is it important that the AV node delay the message received from the SA node?

6. Explain the relationship between blood flow velocity, blood pressure and cross-sectional area of blood vessels.

7. Describe the differences between arteries, veins, and capillaries.

8. Blood pressure in veins is quite low. How is the return of blood to the heart aided?

9. Describe how the flow of blood through capillary beds is regulated and how materials are exchanged between capillaries and the interstitial fluid.

10. Name and briefly describe the primary components of blood.

11. Outline the process of blood clotting.

12. Define and identify the causes of cardiovascular disease, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, LDLs and HDLs.

13. Using the flow of blood through the gill of a fish and the water around it, explain the concept of countercurrent exchange.

14. How do trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli contribute to the huge surface area of the respiratory system?

15. Describe negative pressure breathing.

16. How is breathing controlled in humans?

17. Use the concept of partial pressure to explain the loading and unloading of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveolar space and in the tissues.

18. Describe the dissociation curve for hemoglobin and explain how it demonstrates the ability of hemoglobin to deliver oxygen during normal metabolism and during high metabolism.

19. What adaptation is evidenced by the Bohr shift?

20. How is CO2 transported in the blood?