Animal Reproduction

Chapter 46

1. Suggest benefits and disadvantages of both asexual and sexual reproduction.

2. Describe the benefits of hermaphroditism. What problem of hermaphroditism does sequential hermaphroditism solve?

3. What problem of external fertilization was solved by internal fertilization?

4. For species that use external fertilization, how do they ensure the coordinated release of gametes?

5. Be familiar with the internal and external reproductive anatomy of both males and females.

6. What is the primary difference between a menstrual cycle and an estrous cycle.

7. Summarize the events associated with the flow phase, follicular phase, and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

8. What hormone changes trigger the beginning of a new menstrual cycle?

9. The menstrual cycle is interrupted during pregnancy. Explain how this occurs and why it is important.

10. What would happen if the corpus luteum disintegrated during pregnancy?

11. Explain the events of the ovarian and menstrual cycles and the hormone controls that regulate and coordinate the two.

12. How are the functions of LH and FSH similar in males and females?

13. How does the birth control pill prevent pregnancy? Why would a woman not take birth control pills for the entire 28 days of the menstrual cycle? On which days of the menstrual cycle would the pill not be taken?

14. The fetus is unable to breathe oxygen or eat in utero. How does it get oxygen and nutrients?

15. Describe the hormonal changes that trigger birth.